How To Install Git On Ubuntu System: Complete Guide And Procedure

Git is a powerful version control program. Using Git, a team member on a large programming project can see what changes were recently made to certain files, who on the team is making those changes, and can even revert a file back to a previous version, just in case any new code causes problems or issues.

Version control is essential on any large project. Without it, people have a tendency to become disorganized, with multiple individuals working on the same issue, or worse, working at cross-purposes. Some teams try to keep track of projects using an application like Google Docs, but often the project becomes too complicated for human beings to track all of the changes over the doc. Then the team is back to square one, with confusion being the norm.

Why Use Git?

Git

While there are other version control programs available across all operating systems, Git is the most popular, due to its ease of use as well as the fact that it's easy to install. Git is available for Windows, Mac and UNIX, and is easily available across all three platforms. But what about LINUX and Ubuntu? Is Git available for those platforms as well?

Actually, the short answer is yes. Git is available on Ubuntu as well, and it is very easy to find and install. According to scm.com, Git was first developed as version control software for the LINUX platform, which inspired Ubuntu. At the time of Git’s creation, the LINUX platform was still being created, and the project desperately needed a form of version control software that was robust enough to handle an extremely large project. So, in 2005, Linus Torvalds(the creator of LINUX), along with the LINUX community, created Git as a free version control tool in order to aid in building the LINUX kernel. Git was so successful that people started using it on other projects, and that’s how Git became the most used version control software in the world today. It definitely has been ported to Ubuntu and is easy to find.

What is Ubuntu and Why Should I Use It?

What is Ubuntu and Why Should I Use It-

But first, let’s examine Ubuntu so that we can understand why this is such a big deal. Ubuntu is based on the LINUX platform and is an operating system. Other examples of operating systems include Windows and Mac OS X. What separates Ubuntu from operating systems such as Windows is that Ubuntu is open-source. This means that this operating system is given away, free of charge, and that any individual who wishes to work with the OS may do so without working for a large corporation or paying fees. Again, this has much to do with its LINUX origin, which is one reason why Ubuntu is so flexible and easy to find and programs like Git are so easy to install.

Interestingly enough, the name of Ubuntu was actually taken from a South African dialect. The word means “humanity to others”, which is appropriate for a large group project that was created as an open-sourced operating system. The fact that this OS still has a large and dynamic following, despite not being supported by a large corporation with a massive marketing budget, is a testament to how well its creator’s ideas were implemented, as well as the flexibility it allows for creativity.

These traits are wonderful for independent entrepreneurs, but they also are excellent for larger corporations which want to experiment with an operating system, but may not want to commit to a platform that requires different permissions and fees. Ubuntu also has a number of features that make it a desirable platform, such as being secure against viruses and having a built-in firewall. There also are many online forums which are dedicated to Ubuntu, which helps to make up for the fact that the OS doesn’t have a dedicated help line like Windows or MAC OS X does.

However, the same features that make Ubuntu desirable for some developers can be troublesome for the average user. Installing programs takes a knowledge of certain commands entered via the keyboard, as opposed to Windows/MAC OS, which simply requires following some prompts on an install screen. If the average user doesn’t know how to install a program using Ubuntu, is there any way that they can use Git on the OS? Absolutely. There are several ways an average user can use Git on Ubuntu, and many of them are easy to access.

How to Find(and Install) A Copy of Git for Your Ubuntu OS

How to Find(and Install) A Copy of Git for Your Ubuntu OS

First of all, many copies of Ubuntu come with a version of Git. While this version may be dated, it will still function. If Git is already installed on Ubuntu, then obviously it’s not necessary for the user to re-install it. However, the version of Git included on Ubuntu may be outdated. Then the user may need to install a new version, although this isn’t as necessary as it was when Git was young and receiving many new features.

New versions of Git for Ubuntu are free and only need to be downloaded and installed in order to be used. Like most versions of UNIX and LINUX, Ubuntu has a command-line interface, which means that the user must type in all commands, instead of using the mouse to click and drag, like Windows and Mac OS X allow the user to do. So, in order to download and install Git to your Ubuntu-based PC, you can type the following command: # apt-get install git. This will tell the computer to install Git on the user’s hard drive.

However, what if you’re not in the root directory or you don’t have admin privileges for some reason? Well, that’s when you use Sudo. Sudo is a utility which allows an individual that may not have admin privileges to install programs and move files around as well as delete them.(The word “sudo” is short for “superuser do”.) So if you have access to Sudo, simply type # sudo apt-get install git. That should install Sudo on the computer’s boot drive.

Now, this method uses a binary installer to download Git onto your computer. While this should be adequate for most people, it may not provide the user with the absolute latest version of Git. So what should someone do who is interested in getting the most recent iteration of Git?

Then what the user may need to do is actually download the file from the source, instead of relying on a binary installer. Here is how to download the file from the Git source. First, according to digitalocean.com, type sudo apt-get update. Then type sudo apt-get install build-essential libssl-dev libcurl4-gnutls-dev libexpat1-dev gettext unzip. This should update all libraries to ensure that you will be able to download Git from the source effectively, and should ensure that there are no problems.

After the user has downloaded these files, they should go onto GitHub in order to download the latest version of Git. To do this, the user must find the Git Project page and look through the branches(avoiding the beta or c versions) in order to find the latest version. Then the user must right-click the “download zip” button and select the “copy link address” option. Going back into Ubuntu, type in “wget” along with the web address you just copied. Ubuntu will download the file you just sent a link to.

After the file is downloaded, the user must unzip the file. To do this, the user must type unzip git.zip. This command should unzip the new Git file. Then the user should enter the Git directory by typing “cd git”. To make the software package and install it, the following commands should be typed into the computer: “make prefix=/usr/local all” and then “sudo make prefix=/usr/local install”. That should ensure that the user’s computer has the most current version of Git.

Procedures to Operate Git

Procedures to Operate Git

No matter how the user installs Git, there are certain procedures that need to be finished before the user can begin to use the software. First of all, the user’s name and e-mail must be input into the computer by this method: “git config --global user.name "Name Here"”. Then the user’s e-mail must be input in the same manner: “git config --global user.email "[email protected]"”. This information will ensure that Git knows where to send change notifications, and that the program will be able to monitor everyone’s actions correctly.

If the user doesn’t set up their name and e-mail correctly, a warning will appear and e-mails will be sent to a default account which may or may not exist. In order to ensure that Git is sending e-mail notifications to the correct account, it is highly recommended that the user examine Git’s config file to ensure that all information is correct. The user can do this by typing “git config --list”, which will show the Git config file, along with all e-mail and name information, or by typing “cat ~/.gitconfig”, which will achieve the same result.

After checking the config file, Git should be installed, and the user should have access to one of the most powerful version control tools available to any programmer or developer. While a somewhat difficult program to learn, Git is flexible and undeniably useful. Whether the user needs to monitor progress in a project, see how each team member is changing each file, or simply undoing the latest changes, Git is an invaluable aid to any team.

Linux vs. Ubuntu: Learn the Primary Differences

 Looking for a new OS and trying to decide between Linux and Ubuntu? We break down the (surprising!) histories of these two Linux distros and explain pros and cons to both. Plus, we wade into the security concerns over Linux Mint; should you avoid it? We help you answer that question once and for all. 

If you’re even the tiniest bit tech savvy, you’ll know there’s a vast difference between Windows and Mac operating systems. What you might not realize, however, is that there is a whole world of available operating systems that have nothing to do with either Windows or Mac!

Most of the time, beginners are pointed towards Linux Mint or Ubuntu. Both of these operating systems are excellent choices for people just starting out, but they vary in some important ways. In this article, we’re taking a deep dive into all things Linux and Ubuntu to help you understand the differences, and decide where you should start.

What Is an Operating System?

To best understand Mint and Ubuntu, we should first clearly understand what is meant by the term “operating system.” An operating system is a software that manages software resources and computer hardware. It allows one computer program, for example, to be used by a wide variety of computers (including phones!).

We’ve already touched on how popular Microsoft Windows and the macOS from Apple are. Together, they account for more than 84% of the market, with Google’s Android and Apple’s iOS accounting for 99% percent of the smartphone and tablet market.

Linux, however, is a distant (but important) third, with just over one and a half percent of the computer market. More importantly, Linux dominates when it comes to servers and supercomputers.

Computer Operating Systems
Photo credit to YouTube

Open Source Software

Linux is an example of open-source software. It is distributed in source code form and built and created by different entities and people. It doesn’t come as a complete package, either, the way Windows or your macOS will.

Instead, different organizations work on the following disparate parts:

  • The GNU shell utilities (this provides the commands we use as well as the terminal interface)
  • The kernel (which, for Linux, is the core of the entering OS)
  • The desktop environment (provides a graphical desktop by running on the X server, explained below)
  • The X server (works to support the desktop environment)

While you can nab each of the separate parts and combine them, this is extremely time-consuming and quite difficult. Plus, it’s a ton of work! That’s where Linux distributions (often called distros) come in. They take all those open-source project codes and combine them into a single OS.

With a distro such as Linux Mint or Ubuntu, you can simply boot up your computer and install. Plus, distros add special touches, such as themes. That’s the magic of a distro, and that’s why Mint and Ubuntu are often recommended to beginners.

Computer Open Source Software
Photo credit to lamphimquangcao.tv

Variations Among Distros

Distros vary according to their purpose. Some are designed to be used by servers (and therefore don’t have a graphical interface) while others are designed for special purposes, like the PC you use for your home theater.

Linux distros serve a wide variety of purposes and come in an even wider variety of forms. Some include only open-source software (Fedora is one such distro) but others, such as Mint, include closed-source software so that users have a better experience.

The default desktop environments from one distro to another also vary rather dramatically. Unity, for example, comes with Ubuntu, while you can get Cinnamon or MATE with your Mint. Fedora, another distro that’s commonly compared to Mint and Ubuntu, comes with GNOME Shell.

Computer Open Source Software
Photo credit to Open Source Initiative

Try it Out

As you explore the differences between Ubuntu and Mint, keep in mind that the decisions are fiercely personal. Both distros are excellent choices for PCs, but the best way to know which you prefer is to try them out yourself. Fortunately, it’s easy to do so.

All you have to do is download them and either burn a DVD that’s bootable or create a USB drive that’s bootable. Next, restart your computer, booting from your DVD or USB drive, and you can use your new Linux distro in live mode.

Some newer computers require you to disable secure boot first, but this is easily done. If you like your Linux distro, you can then install it directly from the live environment (which will not, coincidentally, mess with your existing system).

Why Ubuntu?

Now that you know what an OS, a distro, and Linux are, let’s talk about Ubuntu, specifically. Ubuntu is a Linux distro based on another Linux distro, Debian. It’s offered in three packages: Ubuntu Desktop for PCs, Ubuntu Server (for, cough, servers), and Ubuntu Core for IOS (internet of things) devices.

Debian itself has been around since 1993, more than a quarter of a century! New versions of Debian are still being released, but the original point of Ubuntu was to take the stable, respectable Debian and make it faster and more user-friendly.

Ubuntu’s name comes from the South Africa philosophy of human-ness and is produced by Canonical, a privately held software firm created by South African entrepreneur Mark Shuttleworth. Canonical uses a meritocratic governance model to provide commercial services for Ubuntu-related products.

This means the company can create new releases every six months, as well as provide support. Ubuntu has become the most popular choice for cloud OS.

Ubuntu Operating System
Photo credit to Fossbytes

Unity for All

Ubuntu users receive the Unity desktop as a default, those with minimal effort you can install and use a variety of other desktop environments (Ubuntu maintains a robust library plus there are third parties that create personal packages, known as PPA).

It is the Unity desktop, in fact, that will remind Mac users of what they’re used to, with working windows and a left-hand application launcher. Unity utilizes windows and global windows in a similar fashion to Windows and comes with Firefox.

Why Mint?

We have a bit of a surprise twist for you. Mint, as it turns out, is based on Ubuntu! While the two distros have both come far enough that they’re quite different now, they were originally very similar. Mint’s first Ubuntu system was called Barbara and was released in 2006.

It was only lightly customized, with software that was slightly different from the original. In fact, the main difference was that it included Flash, Java, and other proprietary software and multimedia codecs. Users loved Mint’s convenience, often more than they loved Ubuntu’s idealistic setup.

Mint is now its own entity, with a customized desktop, main menu, and configuration tools and unlike Ubuntu, it is community-driven (with Clément Lefèbvre as the brainchild behind the thing).

Instead of Unity, Mint users can enjoy Cinnamon or MATE desktops, though they do have to be content with less consistent software updates (this had led to some security concerns, which we’ll explain below).

Mint is often recommended for computer users who desire more traditional desktop experiences; Cinnamon and MATE both have complete taskbars with window lists, pop up app menus, and so forth.

Mint Ubuntu Operating System
Photo credit to OMG! Ubuntu!

Linux Mint vs. Ubuntu

Some of the differences between Mint and Ubuntu are fairly obvious at this point: Mint has the more traditional desktop setup (here’s a fun wrinkle: you can install Cinnamon on Ubuntu!), while Ubuntu has more long-term support and an established schedule of updates.

Mint used to be preferable for people who didn’t want to install media add-ons later, but Ubuntu has made that process so easy that it’s not an issue anymore. The fact is that Ubuntu may well be the more popular distro of the two, which means a lot if you’re just beginning.

The fact that you’ll see tons of community support available for your Ubuntu means a lot when you hit a snag or major issue. On the other hand, the consensus is that Mint offers better configuration. One example is that you’ll see a whole setting application for the Cinnamon desktop, whereas you’ll only see a few options with Ubuntu’s Unity.

Linux Mint vs. Ubuntu
Photo credit to YouTube

Secure?

A Canonical employee who worked on Ubuntu made waves years ago when he alleged that, because Mint blocks certain security updates, he wouldn’t do his personal online banking via a Linux Mint PC. Debates hammered out the arguments across internet forums, but it left many of us wondering–is Mint secure?

The bottom line for most is that most home desktop users will probably not be compromised. Ubuntu, as it turns out, updates everything by default, shoring up vulnerabilities even if they’re not likely to be breached. Mint, on the other hand, excludes the updates that might cause problems.

Ultimately, it’s up to the user to decide which he or she is more comfortable with!

Ubuntu and Linux Mint are both excellent distros for beginners or people who just want a good OS for a new or existing computer. Do you agree with our break down? Which will you choose? Let us know in the comments!

How To Install Nginx Webserver On Ubuntu 16.04

Nginx is a great web server. I am using it on other blogs I owned online. It’s probably the second most popular web servers in used today.. and growing rapidly.

Some will argue that Nginx is more resource-friendly than Apache2 and can be used as a reverse-proxy server.. so it’s pretty good.

This brief tutorial is going to show you how to easily install Nginx web server in Ubuntu 16.04.

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Show Unity Launcher At The Bottom Of Your Screen In Ubuntu 16.04

One long awaited feature that was recently released as part of Ubuntu 16.04 is the ability to dock ot move the Unity Launcher to the bottom of your screen.

In previous version of Ubuntu, the launcher was installed at the left side of your screen with no easy way to move it around.. now with the released of Ubuntu 16.04 “Xenial Xerus” , one can change its location easily..

This brief tutorial is going to show you to do that with few commands.

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How To Easily Upgrade To Ubuntu 16.04 From 15.10

Ubuntu 16.04 “Xenial Xerus” was just recently released and this brief tutorial is going to show you how to do an in-place upgrade easily.

An in-place upgrade from 15.10 to 16.04 is quite easy. All you need is a stable Internet connection and running few commands from your terminal.

If you’re running custom packages or have customized your system heavily, you’ll probably want to be cautious when upgrading. Besides those concerns, all should go perfect.

Continue reading “How To Easily Upgrade To Ubuntu 16.04 From 15.10”